In response to Joan's request, a few notes on the Lollard movement. It grew out of dissatisfaction with the corruption of the medieval Catholic Church. However, while some critics remained within the Church and (for example) supported new and more austere religious orders, the Lollards developed a range of beliefs that were regarded as heresy.
The founder of the movement is usually said to be John Wycliffe who, among other things, translated the Bible into English. Some people think that the movement actually started before Wycliffe, but it is at times hard to distinguish Lollardy from straightforward desire for reform.
Lollards did not all believe the same things. Typically they favoured the disendowment of the Church; they disapproved of swearing, at a time when most people were pretty liberal with profane oaths; they usually denied the virtue of pilgrimages or images; most denied transubstantiation; they denied the authority of priesthood and the importance of blessings or other ritual; they saw no need for clerical celibacy; some argued that priests and secular rulers had no authority unless they were in a state of grace. Extremists in the movement argued that property should be held in common.
In the early years they were supported by John of Gaunt and other nobles, who were far from opposed to stripping the Church of its vast property. However Wycliffe's denial of transubstantiation was a bridge too far for most. Nevertheless an influential group of Lollard knights were to be found at Richard II's court. These included Sir Thomas Latimer, Sir John Trussel, Sir Lewis Clifford, Sir John Peachey, Sir Richard Storey, Sir Reginald Hilton, William Nevil and John Clanvowe.
One group of Lollards petitioned Parliament with The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards by posting them on the doors of Westminster Hall in February 1395. Richard II was absent in Ireland at the time, and was greatly angered. He threatened to execute the Lollard members of his court unless they retracted their opinions. However, he did not. Indeed the well-known Lollard Sir John Montagu (or Montacute, take your pick) later Earl of Salisbury, remained high in his favour to the end of his reign.
Henry IV allowed the passage of the famous Statute De heretico comburendo. During his reign two Lollards were burnt, a priest and a layman. Ironically Richard II had questioned Henry's loyalty to the Church. It is probable Henry was influenced by his important supporter Archbishop Arundel, who was a strong opponent of the Lollards.
Henry V had a Lollard friend, Sir John Oldcastle - once Henry became king, Oldcastle was involved in a significant Lollard revolt against him. The rising was crushed. Oldcastle was captured and executed by being both hanged and burnt at the same time! (This was quite separate from the Cambridge conspiracy, although it appears there was an attempt to draw Lollards into the latter.)
Lollardy did not die out, of course, it was merely driven underground. There were a few isolated executions under the Lancastrian and Yorkist kings, and in Tudor times the movement was subsumed into Protestantism. It was left to Henry VIII and Mary I to make the most use of Henry IV's Statute.